Return to Ancestral Homeland

This Y Haplogroups world map shows that Malays of the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, as well as the Han Chinese of South China, who all share the dominant Y-DNA Haplogroup ‘O’, are actually blood-brothers, so to speak.

This Y Haplogroup map, as the results of massive DNA sampling exercise from participating male population of the various countries and regions of the world, is about Y-chromosome (Y-DNA), inherited exclusively from father to son in an unaltered fashion for many generations, which allow geneticists to identify very old lineages and ancient ethnicities.

Apparently, the Han Chinese community in Southern China were immigrants, whose ancestors once lived in the Malay Archipelago. And that these Han Chinese arrivals in the 19th and 20th century into Singapore and Malaysia were actually a return to an ancestral homeland that had been long abandoned.

Now the Malaysian and Singaporean Chinese, or rather Chinese Malay, so to speak, may have the uphill task to learn to live with descendents of their Malay ancestors who had long been forgotten, and to relearn the ancestral Malay language and culture to be accepted as long lost relatives of the Malays.

My great grandmother, a Han Chinese, who came from Guangdong China to Malaysia to then converted to Islam and married to a Javanese from Indonesia to start a big family here, may well be the case of balik kampung (return to the homeland)!

Another map below depicts Y-DNA of Haplogroup O-M175 only, to show clearly Malay lineage and Homeland in South-East Asia and Malay migration (perhaps originating from the Philippines by sea) that extends deep into Asian Continent.

This haplogroup O-M175 appears in 80-90% of most of populations in East Asia and Southeast Asia, and it is almost exclusive to that region. M175 is almost nonexistent in Western Siberia, Western Asia, Europe, and Africa and is completely absent from the Americas, although certain subclades of Haplogroup O do achieve significant frequencies among some populations of South Asia, Central Asia, Oceania, and Madagascar in the Indian Ocean.

A broad survey of Y-chromosome variation among populations of central Eurasia found haplogroup O-M175 in 2.5% (one out of 40 individuals) of a sample of Tajiks in Samarkand, 4.5% (1/22) of Crimean Tatars in Uzbekistan, 1.5% (1/68) of Uzbeks in Surkhandarya, 1.4% (1/70) of Uzbeks in Khorezm, 12.5% (2/16) of Tajiks in Dushanbe, 1.9% (1/54) of Kazakhs in Kazakhstan, 4.9% (2/41) of Uyghurs in Kazakhstan.

Whilst Another Y-DNA Haplogroup map that comes with lineage frequency table provides the more detailed analysis of 28 selected population groups as follows:

To simplify lineage comparisons, I have replaced the haplogroup code with the nationality having the highest lineage frequency of that particular Y-DNA haplogroup, and ranked them accordingly to produce following interesting results:

  1. Taiwanese – 92.3% Taiwanese (Aborigines), 3.8% Cook Islander, 3.8% Solomon Islander
  2. Vietnamese – 91% Taiwanese (Aborigines), 9.1% Cook Islander
  3. Javanese – 88.6% Taiwanese (Aborigines), 1.9% Cook Islander, 1.9% Solomon Islander, Others 7.6%
  4. Chinese – 83% Taiwanese (Aborigines), 11.1% Solomon islander, 5.6% cook islander
  5. Filipino – 82.1% Taiwanese (Aborigines), 10.3% Cook Islander, 2.6% Solomon Islander, Others 5.2%
  6. S. Bornean – 75% Taiwanese (Aborigines), 10% Solomon Islander, 5% Cook Islander, 10% Others
  7. Malaysian – 66.7% Taiwanese (Aborigines), 11.1% Cook Islander, 11.1% Solomon Islander, 11.2% Others
  8. Korean – 64% Taiwanese (Aborigines), 12% cook islander, 8% Solomon islander, 16% others
  9. Tongan – 60% Taiwanese (Aborigines), 23% Cook Islander, 10% Solomon Islander, 8% Western New Guinea Lowlander

It is established that Taiwanese Aborigines carry 100% Haplogroup O(M175), Cook Islanders carry 83.3% Haplogroup C(M130), Solomon Islanders (Malaita Province) carry 66.7% Haplogroup K(M9*), and Western New Guinea Lowlanders carry 77.5% Haplogroup M(M4/M106).

Meanwhile, the fact that Chinese is ranked #4 behind Taiwanese, Vietnamese and Javanese, for instance, indicates there was a back-migration earlier to China from South East Asia. Otherwise how come Chinese carry with them traces of lineages similar to the general characteristics of South East Asians in respect of Solomon Islander and/or Cook Islander, apart from Taiwanese Aborigines.


‘Y-Chromosome Diversity Is Inversely Associated With Language Affiliation in Paired Austronesian- and Papuan-Speaking Communities from Solomon Islands’, By MURRAY P. COX* AND MARTA MIRAZON LAHR, Leverhulme Centre for Human Evolutionary Studies, Department of Biological Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY 18:35–50 (2006)

‘DNA suggests China Chinese originated from Southeast Asia’, By Farhan Ali (2009)

‘Haplogroup O (Y-DNA)’, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

‘Y Haplogroups of the World’, Copyright © 2005 J. D. McDonald


2 Comments Add yours

  1. Ben lu says:

    One comment: Taiwanese aborigines is very closed to mainland China Taiwan is about southeastern of mainland. It seemed very likely to me that the Taiwanese aboriginese also lived in south eastern China at least(in areas of Fijian and kwangtung provinces) where very rich finds of hundreds of thousands years old fossils of human ancestors, sites of civilizations some 12,000 years old,… were dug out.

  2. My name is Adrian Yohanes Purnomo. I born and lives in Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia. I tested my DNA and i belongs to Paternal Y Hg O*-M175, more spesific O-CTS5492 / (O3a3c1) / O2-M122-M134-M117-M133 and my Maternal mtDNA Hg B4, more spesific B4c2. Apparently i’m a Fujianese Indonesian descendant. I saw Malayan and Chinese (Han) shared a similar Paternal line, Y Hg O2a1 / O1b1-M95 for Austroasiatic and Malay people like Javanese, Balinese, Sundanese, Madurese, etc and Y Hg O3 / O2a1….-M122-M7-M134-JST0026…for Sino Tibetan, Hmong Mien, Tibeto Burmese and Malayo Polynesians. But Malay and Northern Chinese (Han) Maternal line were quite different. Western Indonesian Malay, Austroasiatic (Vietnamese, Thai, etc) and Southern Chinese like Guangdong, Hong Kongers, Taiwanese (Native and Han descendant), Fujianese, Guangxi, Zhejiangnese, Hainanese, etc share similar Maternal line with an mtDNA Hg R9, F, R11 and B. While Northern Chinese, Inner Mongolian, Manchurian, Korean and Japanese share similar Maternal mtDNA Hg M7 – M10, CZ, C, Z, D, G and Q, except E (all of them were an M Type). Mongolian, Manchurian, Altaian (Native Siberian), The Kazakhstans, etc were the descendants from Old East Asians with Paternal Y Hg C*-M130 – C2-M217, D*-M174, D1-M15, D2-M55, etc. All of them (Northern Barbarians) weren’t have a Y Hg K*-M9 (Southern Central Asian) markers and don’t have an mtDNA Hg N – R (Southern Central Asian) markers at all. Quite different with Chinese – Malayan Paternal and Maternal DNA Haplogroups.

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